Although local solutions are important, Manjunath believes dramatic changes are needed on a national and global level to protect the environment and improve the lives of poor people. "It needs the will power of governments to make it count," he said.
"The government makes it so difficult to get subsidies for solar energy in India. Loans by banks are subsidized, not from micro-finance [organizations]. And who do the banks lend to? Rich people," added Manjunath.
Another Ashden award recipient, Tri Mumpuni, the executive director of the not-for-profit People-Centered Economic and Business Institute (IBEKA) in Indonesia, which works with communities to develop micro-hydro programs that provide electricity, agreed that fossil fuel subsidies need to be cut. This year, Indonesia is spending $16.6 billion on fossil fuel subsidies, she said.
"We definitely have to reduce subsidies on fossil fuels. The money spent for renewable energy and fossil fuels is unbalanced." Mumpuni added that she would like to see energy supplies decentralized to allow local resources to be better used.
Mumpuni's organization has helped install 61 hydro schemes in Indonesia, which has provided electricity for 54,000 people and saves 7,400 tons of CO2 a year.
However, Richenda Van Leeuwen, executive director of the U.N. Foundation's energy and climate energy access initiative, who is spearheading the U.N. Sustainable Energy For All initiative, and was also in London this week, said she was "agnostic" about subsidies, recognizing that some countries still need them. She said the Cook Islands can only use diesel to deliver energy, so the government needed to continue offering subsidies until it can move towards renewable sources.
"We need to work with each country on specific issues. We need to ask: what are a community's issues and needs? Rather than thinking one size fits all, we need to look at the local context," she said, adding that both public and private sector investments need to be explored.
All three agreed that June's Rio+20 conference on sustainable development will offer a chance to explore new ideas, but Mumpuni and Manjunath stressed the need for politicians to take firm action. "If we are not all on the road towards sustainable development, we will face catastrophe," said Mumpuni.
Intellpuke: This article was written by Liz Ford, deputy editor of the Guardian's Global Development website, which supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. You can read it in context here: www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/may/31/fossil-fuel-subsidies-india-microfinance